Id have PMed you this back however the reply was too long.
There are two ways of getting your guitar signal into a mixing desk. The first way is to put a microphone (like a Shure SM57) in front of the speaker in your cab. The mic is attached to the desk and will allow your sound man to mix the guitar into the front house sound combing out of the PA. It will also allow you to control how much guitar comes out of the monitors on stage. The best thing about this is that you dont have to have your amp set to 11 on stage to get the guitar heard by the audience as this has a tendency to deafen the rest of the band. The other way is a direct feed from the amp into the desk. This is a little more tricky and requires that your amp has either a headphones socket or a line out socket. If you dont have either of these you will need to mic the amp. Running a direct line out of the amp is easy if you have the correct outputs however, it may to sound as good as using a microphone as you will not hear things like room ambiance and the frequency attenuation that makes your cab sound the way it does. Micking also requires a little experimentation as the position of the mic relative to the speaker in your amp / cab. will make a difference to the over all sound that is transmitted.
As far as signal processors go, well this is a blanket term that describes multi-effects processors, preamps, EQ the lot.
If I were you I'd not worry about an EQ so much and think about an effects rack like the midi verb. You don't really want this to make the guitar sound funky, all you really want this for is to add a little reverb or echo to your vocals.
A good idea may be to get talking to the sound guy at the next bar type gig you go to and see how they do it. Once you get your head round what all the knobs and buttons are for it is not that difficult !
Hope this helps
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